Frena Frenum Frenulum Upper Lip
Please click to enlarge.
Note what signs you see.
I (N. Zymak-Zakutnia, M.D.) see:
- a single median maxillary labial frenum (SMMLF) concurrent with a diastasis (separation or gap) of the upper maxillary median incisors (diastema).
PERSPECTIVE: One survey of 2,400 adults in India showed that 64% had a single simple frenum. A survey of patients with holoprosencephaly showed that 15 of 18 patients with holoprosencephaly did not have a superior labial frenulum. Multiple frenula (frena) and attachments are a sign of heritable connective tissue disorders. Frenulum and frenzy, mania, dementia share roots – how? – See Pandora Word Box.
BE AWARE – There is a multitude of dysmorphic syndromes associated with signs evident through a careful examination of lips and the oral-dental-glossal structures.
NOTE: Causes of the above anomalies may also be expressed as frenula anomalies of the tongue, penis, and clitoris.